All species occur in humid forests in decaying wet logs. In Australia, S. autralicus and S. queenlandicus are found only in rainforests, while S. victoriensis is found in heavily timbered mountainous country. S. ruficeps and S. inopinus (Gay, 1969) is found in Nothofagus and Pinus forests in New Zealand. S. africanus is restricted to wet coastal forest in Cape province, South Africa (Coaton & Sheasby, 1978).
Little is known about any species except Stolotermes victoriensis which is found only in wet decaying dead wood lying on the ground or dead wood in the trunk of living trees (Hill, 1942; Gay & Calaby, 1970). Some colonies have been found in decaying branches and rot holes in living trees, up to 40 m above the ground.
Colonies are usually only of a few hundred individuals, with very few soldiers - larger colonies appear to have multiple primary reproductives. Brachypterous neotenic reproductives are common. Flighting occurs over an extended period during January and February, a few fly at a time late in the evening.
S. africanus has a similar biology to S. victoriensis (Coaton, 1949; Coaton & Sheasby, 1978). It is recorded only from closed canopy natural forests and pine plantations, where it has been recorded from dead tree stumps, fallen trees, and logs and branches on the soil surface. No connection with the soil appears necessary for healthy colony growth. The termites make flattened foraging cells excavated with the grain of the wood, interconnected by a narrow passages. Colonies are of ‘small to moderate size’. Winged imagoes are produced in December and January.