Stolotermes occurs in South Africa, Australia (including Tasmania), and New Zealand.
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Hill (1942) states that records are known of S. ruficeps attacking timber in New Zealand, but this is authenticated. Otherwise there are no records of the genus as a pest.
All species occur in humid forests in decaying wet logs. In Australia, S. autralicus and S. queenlandicus are found only in rainforests, while S. victoriensis is found in heavily timbered mountainous country. S. ruficeps and S. inopinus (Gay, 1969) is found in Nothofagus and Pinus forests in New Zealand. S. africanus is restricted to wet coastal forest in Cape province, South Africa (Coaton & Sheasby, 1978).